Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales. May- August, 2019, 7(2): 125-144
Translated from the original in spanish
Actions for the management of bovine species with agroforestry techniques in the entity "The Vaquerito"
Acciones para el manejo de especies bovinas con técnicas agroforestales en la unidad de producción "El Vaquerito"
Yusniel Dago Dueñas
Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Pinar del Río, Cuba. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: November 21th, 2018.
Approved: May 5th, 2019.
The work was developed in the town of Plan Café, Consolation del Sur, Pinar del Río, with the purpose of designing actions for the management of bovine species with agroforestry techniques in the entity "El Vaquerito". Surveys and interviews were carried out to workers of the area to determine the main elements that provoked the law milk yield. It was evaluated by means of a main FODA. Through the Relative Value Index of each of the variables in the matrix, it was determined which of them had the greatest weight in the analysis. The current situation of the town of Plan Café belonging to Consolation del Sur, with regard to the handling of the bovine livestock, places it in an offensive position, with a total of 25 points. On the base of the obtained results they intend actions to foment the handling, upbringing, multiplication of the bovine one in this cattle production system.
Keywords: bovine; management; main FODA.
El trabajo se desarrolló en la localidad de Plan Café, Consolación del Sur, Pinar del Río, con el propósito de elaborar acciones para el manejo de especies bovinas con técnicas agroforestales en la unidad de producción "El Vaquerito". Se realizaron encuestas y entrevistas dirigidas a trabajadores de la zona para determinar cuáles eran los principales elementos que incidían en el bajo rendimiento de las producciones lecheras. Se evaluó mediante una matriz FODA. A través del Índice de Valor Relativo de cada una de las variables de la matriz se determinó cuáles de ellas tenían mayor peso en el análisis. La situación actual de la localidad de Plan Café perteneciente a Consolación del Sur, con respecto al manejo del ganado bovino, la coloca en una posición ofensiva, con un total de 25 puntos. Sobre la base de los resultados obtenidos se proponen acciones para fomentar el manejo, crianza y multiplicación del bovino en este sistema de producción pecuario.
Palabras clave: bovino; manejo; matriz FODA.
Since its appearance on Earth, human beings have developed the ability to exert certain control over natural resources, a situation that allowed their success on the planet. According to FAO (2012), land, water, climate and biological diversity form the basis of agriculture, essential for rural development and sustainable livelihoods. Growing human demand for resources has destabilized the environment. This situation puts at risk the ability to provide goods and services by eroding biodiversity, depleting land and water resources. Achieving food security requires economic, social and technological improvements in a context of conservation and management of natural resources and preservation of the environment.
Agriculture is one of the human practices that has distorted man's relationship with the environment. Deforestation, water and soil pollution are examples of man-made environmental damage (Oblitas, 2012). However, Agroforestry Systems (AFF) constitute an alternative to the problem of monocultures; they allow displacement because they involve the combination of forest trees with other crops, with domestic animals, or both. In addition, it optimizes production per unit area, while at the same time respecting the principle of obtaining sustainable yields. (Torres et al., 2015)
Through the integration of trees into farms and agricultural landscapes, production is diversified and sustained to increase social, economic and environmental benefits for farmers at all levels. (Anchundia et al., 2018)
According to Oblitas (2012), a management plan consists of having a clear idea about how and when the management tasks of the agroforestry system should be carried out. To develop this plan, it must be known the structure and function of the production system. Adequate management must be integrated:
a) Soil management;
b) Management of areas with tree and shrub species;
c) Protection of water bodies and improvement of production.
However, in Cuba, the basic foods used in the production systems are milk, pasture and fodder, as well as their conserved forms, as they constitute an economic source for obtaining food that ruminants take advantage of efficiently and allow their exploitation throughout the year. In most of the countries of tropical America, serious problems of deterioration of pastures have been found, reaching approximately 50 % of the surface with an important decrease in the economic and production indicators (Machado González, 2008).
Feeding and management are the main factors that limit the growth and productivity of the herd, mainly in the two critical links of the production chain: the early incorporation of the heifer to the reproductive programs and the recovery of the cow after childbirth (ACPA, 2010).
Taking into account the above, the present research work aimed to develop actions for the management and care of existing bovine species in the entity "El Vaquerito".
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The production center "El Vaquerito" is located at km 4 on the road to Puerta de Golpe: Plan Café, belonging to the municipality of Consolación del Sur, Pinar del Río. It has 268.4 ha of surface and the type of Ferrallitic Yellowish Leached soil predominates, according to Hernandez and others (2015), with pH of 5.2; Ca: 2.5%; Mg: 1.2 %; Na: 0.36 %; K: 0.75 % and MO 1.3 %. Among the predominant plant species are Leucaena leucocephal Lam (leucaena), Saccharum officinarum L (cane), Manihot esculenta Crantz (yuca), Morus alba L (mulberry) and a spontaneous flora of Acacia farnesiana Mill (aroma), Mimosa púdica L) dormidera), Roystonea regia Kunth (palm).
The compilation of the SWOT matrix, to determine the main elements involved in the management and care of existing bovine species, was carried out from the opinions of the residents surveyed in the area, say agricultural workers, livestock and leaders.
The process of elaboration of the SWOT matrix was developed in working sessions. In these sessions, the participants, organized in small groups and in plenary discussions, applied techniques for generating ideas and seeking consensus and arrived at the identification of the main weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities.
These elements were analyzed according to strengths and weaknesses, with opportunities and threats; the value of the impacts was weighted on an incidence scale between 0 and 3. The total value of each quadrant is a consequence of the algebraic sum of the impacts, which allows, according to the highest score, to place it in one of the positions posed by the SWOT analysis (offensive, defensive, adaptive and survival) and to project the strategies and actions that correspond to each case.
The relative value index (RVI) of each of the variables in the SWOT matrix was calculated to determine which of them had the greatest weight within the matrix. This is the result of the quotient obtained by dividing the subtotal obtained in the aspect analyzed by the total of the quadrants to which it belongs and it is expressed in percent. Moracén and others (2014)
The information obtained was recorded and processed in an Excel spreadsheet and descriptive statistics were used for the organization and characterization of the variables under study. The statistical program SPSS ver. 21.0 for Windows was used.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table - SWOT matrix of the agroecosystem analyzed
The position of the entity "El Vaquerito" is advantageous in the market, since it falls in the fourth quadrant and the strategy is offensive, which means that the internal strengths of the zone must be used with the purpose of taking advantage of the opportunities and simultaneously attenuate or eliminate the effect of the current weaknesses and threats, starting from the strengths and through the use of the positive capacities that the productive entity has (Table).
From the calculation of the relative value index (RVI) of each one of the variables of the SWOT Matrix, it was determined that within the strengths variable, the most important were: they have qualified personnel (F1); the facilities have the necessary conditions (F2) and compliance with biosecurity measures (F3). Of the opportunities variable, the one that most affects the zone is the need to link with other entities (O2).
In relation to the IVR of the variable weaknesses, the low quality and availability of pastures (D1), the correct drying of the cows (D3) is not carried out. The above-mentioned diagnosis allowed to focus a set of actions aimed at the management of the bovine species existing in the entity.
In relation to the tendency to increase the demand of the dairy service for food production, within the framework of the process of updating the Cuban economic model and the guidelines of the state, the following actions are defined for the promotion of bovine breeding in the entity, without damaging the environment, ensuring the survival of flora and fauna:
The residents surveyed in the Plan Café locality do not recognize the benefit of management in livestock and recognize that the greatest impacts on milk yield and production are drought, as well as the absence of food in these periods.
The SWOT analysis indicated the use of the area's internal strengths in order to take advantage of opportunities and simultaneously mitigate or eliminate the effect of current weaknesses and threats, starting from strengths, through the use of positive capacities, encourage the breeding, multiplication and management of existing species.
The group of measures proposed for the management and care of cattle will contribute to the increase and conservation of production in the "El Vaquerito" entity, supporting the indications of the guidelines in the political, economic, social and ecological order.
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Copyright (c) 2019 Yusniel Dago Dueñas